A computer network is a system that connects many different computers so they can share information (data) and resources. Users can talk to each other more easily when computers and other devices work together.
A computer network is a group of computers that are all connected to each other. Either cable or wireless media can be used to connect to a network. In any network, computers and other tools are linked together using hardware and software.
There are many different kinds of nodes in a computer network. Nodes in a computer network can be servers, networking hardware, personal computers, and other specialized or general-purpose hosts. They are found by their hostnames and network addresses.
There Are many types of Computer networks LAN, WAN, MAN, SAN, CAN, PAN, And GAN.
LAN-Local area Network
Local area networks are smaller networks that are privately owned and have a maximum length of 10 km. They are used to connect people in the same building or in a small area.
This type of networking is popular and useful in private offices. Most of the time, they are used to connect personal computers, buildings, workplaces, and industries so that people can share resources and transfer data.
The local area network (LAN) Connects many departments in the organization, such as Sales, Finance, Production, Publications, etc.
Features Of LAN
- A LAN is built for a certain area. It usually goes from one workgroup floor to the next in a building, on campus, etc. LAN sends information using different protocols, or sets of rules.
- LAN usually only supports a small number of users, usually between five and ten. More users can be supported by linking multiple LANs together. It works better than making one big network because of Its Nature.
- LANs are really reliable. Most problems on a LAN are caused by wrong or incorrect installation. Monitoring software that comes with a LAN lets you use helpful programs like error recognition, preventing transmission loss, and great security features.
- Flexibility is a big reason why LANs are becoming more popular. In the past, there would only be one kind of desktop computer. Modern LANs, on the other hand, can connect different kinds of computers. This is also how operating systems and storage media are made.
- A LAN administrator is someone who takes care of how a LAN works. The administrator is in charge of tasks like adding or removing users, making passwords, giving permissions to use resources like printers, and backing up information. Today, both hardware and software are pretty easy to use, so it’s not hard to add these functions.
WAN- Wide area network
A wide area network is a way for two or more computers that are in different places to communicate with each other. It works over a longer distance than LAN. It uses public networks to connect, like the phone system or a microwave broadcast.
A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a vast geographical area, such as a region, nation, continent, or the whole globe. WAN consists of the technologies used to transfer data, images, audio, and video across vast distances and between several LANs and MANs.
Types of WAN
These computers are in different parts of the world, but they are all part of the same business. Only people with permission can use it.
It is part of a different group of organisations and can be used by anyone. It is made by LANs and MANs working together.
Features Of WAN
- WANs can connect a lot of computers over a large area and are built to be able to grow as needed.
- They make it easier for people in the area to share resources.
- They give LANs and MANs a way to connect to the Internet.
- Public carriers, like phone networks, Internet service providers, cable systems, satellites, etc., set up the links between people.
- Most of the time, they have a low rate of data transfer and a high propagation delay. This means that they have a slow rate of communication.
- They have a higher bit error rate in general.
MAN – Metropolitan area network
A metropolitan area network is a network that covers a larger area by connecting multiple local area networks (LANs) to make one bigger network. Most of the time, MAN connects multiple local area networks (LANs) using fiber optic cables and a network framework that is very small. It can connect to both computer networks and wireless networks. The MAN is spread out over a larger area than 100 km. It can be made up of more than one piece of hardware and more than one way of communicating.
It might apply to several LANs inside a city. Let’s say there are other parts of a company. We need to connect all of these branches, and each branch has its own network.
When is MAN Used?
- Digital cable television
- Government agencies use it
- Campuses of universities
- Broadband through cable
- Previously, it was used to link the many branches of the local school.
- While in the hospital (for communication between doctors, research offices, labs)
- A system of fire stations
- Traveling through airports
- Community college collaboration around the country
- Public libraries use it
Features of MAN
- Most networks are between 5 and 50 km in size. It can be as small as a few buildings on a college campus or as big as the whole city.
- Rates vary from average to high.
- In general, a MAN is owned by either a group of users or a network provider who sells service to users. This is different from a LAN, which is owned by a single organization.
- It makes it easier to share resources in the area.
- They make it possible for LANs to connect to WANs and the Internet.
SAN – Storage area network
Storage Area Network is what SAN stands for. This is a group of storage devices that can be accessed by more than one server or computer. They make up a pool of storage space that can be used by all of them. Each computer on the Internet can use the SAN storage as if it were a local disk that was directly connected to the computer.
A SAN is made up of hosts, switches, and storage devices that are all linked together. Different protocols can be used to connect the parts. Fiber Channel was the first choice for a transport protocol. Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) is another option. This lets organizations move Fibre Channel traffic over existing high-speed Ethernet, combining storage and IP protocols onto a single infrastructure.
Technology Used By Storage Area Network (SAN)
SANs often use Fibre Channel (FC) technology, which uses the Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP) for open systems and proprietary variants for administration. It also makes it possible for Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) to move FC traffic across high-speed Ethernet networks and combine storage and IP protocols onto a single cable.
Other technologies like Internet Small Computing System Interface (iSCSI), which is often used as a cheaper alternative to FC in small and medium-sized businesses, and InfiniBand, which is often used in high-performance computing environments, can also be used. With gateways, it is possible to move information between different SAN technologies.
SANs are usually used to store all of an enterprise’s data in one place. This makes it easier to manage the data and back it up. SANs are often found near mainframe environments, but they are also becoming more important in client/server environments that are spread out.
SANs are also used as remote storage and archiving facilities connected to networks by high-speed Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) or OC-3 connections.
SANs are especially useful in environments that need to back up data and recover from disasters. Within a SAN, data can be moved from one storage device to another without going through a server. This speeds up the process of backing up and gets rid of the need to use server CPU cycles for backup.
Storage Area Networks are usually used to provide access to data storage. System storage devices like disks, tape drives, and the like are accessible to an operating system through these.
Storage Area Networks aren’t very expensive, so both large companies and small businesses use them.
Features Of SAN
- The capacity of a server is no longer tied to a single storage device. Instead, software applications can now use large storage pools.
- One example is FC, which can get data back faster than 5 Gbps. Storage-to-storage data transfer is also possible by sending data directly from the source device to the target device, with little or no help from the server.
- Instead of connecting to multiple disks and servers, servers look at data stored on their own disks. Features like block-level and incremental backups make it easier for IT system administrators to do their jobs.
- It can keep the network running even if a server fails or is taken offline for maintenance. This is because it has built-in redundancy and can automatically reroute traffic.
CAN – Controller area network
Controller Area Network protocol is what CAN stands for. The CAN protocol is a standard that lets the microcontroller and other devices talk to each other even when there is no host computer.
The broadcast type of bus is what makes the CAN protocol different from other ways of communicating. When information is broadcast, it is sent to all of the nodes. The node can be a sensor, a microcontroller, or a gateway that lets the computer talk to the network through the USB cable or ethernet port.
The CAN is a message-based protocol, which means that each message has an identifier, and the priority is set based on the identifier. Node identification isn’t needed in the CAN network, so it’s easy to add or remove it from the network. It is an asynchronous serial half-duplex communication protocol.
As the CAN network is linked by a two-wired bus, the CAN protocol is a two-wired way to talk. The wires are twisted together in pairs, and each end has a 120 impedance. At first, it was mostly used to talk between vehicles, but now it is used in many other situations as well. CAN can be used for on-board diagnostics, just like UDS and KWP 2000.
PAN – Personal area network
Personal Area Network (PAN) is a computer network that links computers and other devices that are within a person’s range. PAN is called a “Personal Area Network” because it lets people connect to a network within a range of about 10 meters (33 feet). A Personal Area Network usually includes a computer, phone, tablet, printer, PDA (Personal Digital Assistant), and other entertainment devices like speakers, video game consoles, etc. It is very useful at home, in offices, and in small network areas because it is very flexible and works well.
Types of Personal Area Network (PAN)
Personal Area Network can be either wireless or wired, depending on how it connects.
Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) is linked by signals like infrared, ZigBee, Bluetooth, ultrawideband, etc.
A wired PAN is one that is connected by cables or wires like Firwire or USB (Universal Serial Bus).
Features Of Pan
- PAN is pretty flexible and works well for networks with a short range.
- It needs to be easy to set up and not too expensive.
- It does not require frequent installations and maintenance.
- It is easy to move around.
- Less technical skill is needed to use it.
GAN- Global area Network
A global area network (GAN) is a group of networks that are all linked together and cover an unlimited amount of space. The term is similar to the term “global area network,” which is what the Internet is.
GANs are different from local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs) in that they cover a large area.
Since a GAN is used to support mobile communication across a number of wireless LANs, the biggest challenge for any GAN is moving user communications from one local coverage area to the next.
A broadband GAN is the most-wanted type of GAN. The broadband GAN is a global satellite Internet network that lets people make phone calls from portable terminals. Laptops in remote areas can connect to broadband Internet through the terminals.