An Operating System (OS) is the part of a computer that connects the user to the hardware. An operating system is a piece of software that handles all the basic functions of a computer, such as managing files, memory, processes, input, and output, and controlling devices like disk drives and printers.
An operating system is a type of software that takes care of everyday computer tasks, runs other software, manages hardware resources, and does other things that all computer programs do. Your computer’s operating system is responsible for how programs run in one or more processes. Windows, which runs most Windows computers, is an example of an operating system.
Some of the most well-known Operating Systems are Linux, Windows, VMS, OS/400, Android, AIX, z/OS, and so on.
Definition Of OS(Operating System)
An operating system is a program that controls how all other programs run and acts as a bridge between the user and the computer hardware.
Goals Of OS
- User or program control.
- User or program execution.
- Ease computer usage.
- Easy user problem-solving.
- Effectively using computer hardware.
Functions of an Operating System
1. Process management
The operating system (OS) controls when and for how long each process is given access to the CPU in a multiprogramming environment. Process scheduling is the name given to this feature.
OS performs these processor management tasks:
- Keeps track of the process and its status. The traffic controller is the name of the program that takes care of this job.
- A process is assigned to the processor (CPU).
- When a process is no longer needed, it frees up the processor.
2. Memory management
The term “memory management” relates to the management of primary memory (also known as “main memory”). The main memory consists of a vast array of words or bytes, each with its unique address.
Main memory is a fast storage area that the CPU can get to directly. A program must be in the main memory in order to be run.
OS memory management includes the following
- Keeps track of what parts of primary memory are being used by whom and what parts are not being used.
- In multiprogramming, it is the OS’s job to decide when and how much memory each process will get.
- When a process asks it to, it gives the memory to that process.
- De-allocates memory when a process is done or no longer needs it.
3. File management
For easy use and navigation, a file system is usually set up with directories. These folders may contain files and other information.
An OS manages files in these ways:
- Organization storage.
- to name
- file protection.
4. Device management
An operating system controls how devices communicate with each other by using their drivers. It does the following things to help manage devices:
- Tracks all the devices. I/O controller is the name of the program that is responsible for this task.
- Sets when and for how long each process can use the device.
- Finds the best way to use the device.
- De-allocates devices.
5. Secondary storage management
Systems have multiple tiers of storage, including primary storage, secondary storage, and caching. Instructions and data must be stored in primary storage or the cache so that a running program can reference them.
The operating system protects user data with a password. It also stops unauthorized access to programs and user data. However, to protect the system from malware on the outside, we need to install anti-malware software.
7. Error detecting aids
Operating systems are always watching over the system. This helps us find errors and maintain computer systems from breaking down.
8. Performace control over the system
The operating system keeps track of how the system is set up as a whole to help improve performance. It also keeps track of how long it takes for the system to respond to service requests so that it has a full picture of how the system works. You’ll have access to crucial data for troubleshooting issues, which might assist boost performance.
A distributed system is a group of processors that do not share a memory, hardware devices, or clock. The processors communicate with each other over the network.
See Also: What is a computer network?
10. Job accounting
Operating systems always keep track of how much time and resources different tasks and users use. This information can be used to track how a single user or a group of users use resources.
11. Communication management
Operating systems help coordinate and assign interpreters, compilers, assemblers, and other software to the different users of computer systems.
Most popular operating systems
- Windows- 40.34
- Android- 37.95
- iOS- 15.44
- Mac OS- 4.34
- Linux- 0.95
- Chrome OS- 0.14
- Windows Phone OS- 0.06